Elsewhere: Speaking of Jansenism

Jorgen Sonne’s 1866 Nuns walking in a cloister garden in Rome. He has, whether intentionally or not, given them the habit of Port-Royal-des-Champs. (Source)

I refer my readers to two articles that have recently appeared in the Notre Dame Church Life Journal. The first, which came out about a month ago, is an excellent piece by Dr. Shaun Blanchard showing that our polemical use of the term “Jansenism” is seriously mistaken. The second is an article I wrote, a church-historical study in which I both defend the Jansenists from various degrading misconceptions as well as point out some parallels between their situation and our own. I’m also very pleased that the Catholic Herald picked it up for Wednesday’s “Morning Catholic Must-Reads.”

This is not the first time I have tackled the issue, having previously pointed out the rhetorical and ecclesiastical-political resemblances between Pope Francis’s critics and the French Jansenists. I am more sure than ever of that similarity, and may yet elaborate it again should I deem it helpful for the present conversation. Regardless, I certainly will write more about Jansenist history and theology – watch this space.

I should add that I am particularly grateful to Dr. Blanchard for his kind aid in the preparation of my piece, and Dr. Artur Rosman for his editorial patience.

Reflections on Leaving Oxford

Sweet dreams are made of this… (Source)

I have, by the merciful grace of God, passed my M.Phil in Theology at Oxford. I could not have done so without the abundant help of my supervisors and tutors, principally Dr. Sarah Apetrei, as well as the many friends and family who supported me throughout the course of my studies there. Latterly this endeavor has caused me to neglect my blogging, for which I must beg pardon of my readers. Editing, submissions, an examination, travelling, and the arduous business of moving back across the Atlantic has distracted me. So has the bittersweet task of saying goodbye to so many friends, men and women I will miss in the years to come.

Oxford is most beautiful in the Spring. Photo taken by author.

I can understand why our soon-to-be-Saint Newman had so much trouble getting Oxford out of his blood. The place is a mirage in silver and stone. To have dwelt in such a dream-city for so long a time, to have been part of its inner life, to have shaped it according to one’s own character and to be shaped by it in turn, to watch the sun and the rain succeed in their seasons over streets imbued everywhere with a boundless sense of eternity…yes, I can see why Newman was always looking for a path back to this northern Eden. A Papal angel kept him from the gate. More prosaic barriers have turned me aside, namely, the prospects of an academic career in America.

But, in some way, the greater grief is leaving the United Kingdom. Shakespeare called Albion a swan’s nest in a stream. Having traveled from London to Birmingham, from Cardiff to York, from Tenby to Bournemouth, from Cambridge to Edinburgh, from Bath to Stratford, from Walsingham to Wakefield, in short, across the whole face of this country, I can start to see what he means. Britain possesses a peculiar beauty in grey-green and gold, something delicate and immortal that only reveals itself to an attentive foreigner. I shall miss it.

The St. Sepulchre Chapel, Winchester Cathedral. Photo taken by author.

More than that, I’ll miss the many friends I made in my two years abroad. Not just English either, though there were plenty of those – but also Canadians, Russians, Australians, Irish (both orange and green), French, Armenians, Italians, Romanians, Scots, Sri Lankans, Welsh, Poles, Chinese, and even some of my fellow countrymen. The story of my time in Oxford would not be complete without them. I will feel the absence of each, some more keenly than others.

St. Stephen’s House in the snow, January 2019. Photo taken by author.

I suppose this is as good a time as ever to take stock of some of my travels through life at large. I am 24 years old. I have visited 12 countries beyond the borders of the United States:

The United Kingdom
France
Ireland
Belgium
The Netherlands
Italy
Austria
The Czech Republic
Hungary
Romania
Bermuda
Vatican City

And 14 if one includes layovers and train connections in Germany and Switzerland. I have stood at the banks of the following rivers:

The Thames in London
The Thames in Oxford (Isis)
The Thame in Dorchester (before it becomes the Thames)
The Cherwell
The Liffey
The Seine
The Amstel
The Arno
The Rhône
The Saône
The Tiber
The Danube
The Lys
The Usk
The Avon in Bath
The Loire
The Cam

I have spent quite a lot of time in churches. A few favorites in England include the Oxford Oratory, the York Oratory, the Birmingham Oratory, Magdalen College Chapel, Worcester College Chapel, Oriel College Chapel, Merton College Chapel, St. Stephen’s House Chapel, St. Etheldreda’s, Holborn, and the Anglican Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham. My single favorite church in England remains the Brompton Oratory, as it has been since that first June day I stepped into its vast and holy darkness, four years ago.

A favorite country church – St. Swithun’s, Compton Beauchamp. Full of delightfully ironic Georgian monuments and a complete refurbishment by Martin Travers in the 1930s. The setting is beautiful, too. (Source)

I have so far managed to get to the following Cathedrals (and Abbeys) in England, of which the first two are my favourites:

Winchester Cathedral
Gloucester Cathedral
Norwich Cathedral
Oxford Cathedral
St. Paul’s Cathedral
York Minster
Wakefield Cathedral
Salisbury Cathedral
St. Giles’s, Edinburgh
Westminster Cathedral
Westminster Abbey
Bath Abbey
Malmesbury Abbey

Plus some lovely country churches – East Coker, Burford, Stow-on-the-Wold, Binsey, and my very favorite, St. Swithun’s, Compton Beauchamp.

In Ireland, Silverstream Priory remains the most spiritually nourishing place I have ever been; its beauty and its holiness are always palpable.

The Ghent Altarpiece. Seeing this for the first time last February in Saint Bavo’s Cathedral was one of the best moments of my two years abroad. (Source)

My travels on the Continent have been full of their own various ecclesiastical delights, so I’ll only mention a few highlights. My favorite cathedral in the world is St. Bavo’s, Ghent, which represents the perfect fusion of Gothic, Baroque, Rococo, and 19th Century styles. In France, the Chapel of the Miraculous Medal in the Rue du Bac, Saint-Étienne-du-Mont, Lyon Cathedral, Notre-Dame de Fourvière, and Saint-Just in Lyon are a few holy places I will not easily forget. Recently, I visited De Krijtberg in Amsterdam, which is the best example of painted Neo-Gothic I have seen beyond the Sainte-Chapelle. Italy is too full of wonderful churches to count, as are the old Hapsburg lands. If I were to choose a favorite in each, I suppose I would have to list the Chiesa Nuova (St. Philip Neri’s home and final resting place) in Italy, as well as Stift Heiligenkreuz in Austria, the Matthias Church in Hungary, and St. Vitus Cathedral in the Czech Republic. Though, to be fair, I visited several of these a few years ago rather than on this late sojourn in Europe.

The cloisters, Gloucester Cathedral. America’s greatest fault probably lies in having no Medieval structures in situ. Photo taken by author.

I list these travels not out of any boasting, and, perhaps, not even for my readers. If anything, I do it for myself. I am more interested in remembering these places; writing about them has given me occasion to reminisce, to try and recapture something of the pleasure they gave me once.

I have been very blessed in life. I praise the Good Lord for allowing me the chance to see a bit of the world, to have done useful work, to have read interesting books, to have seen beautiful things, to have drank some good wine, and to have known such wonderful people. What more can one ask for in this brief life?

Litany of the French Saints

In the wake of recent tragic events, here is a litany (adapted from here) to the saints of France. May they pray for us, for France, and for the faithful of that great nation.

Notre Dame de Paris, priez pour nous! (Source)

V. Kyrie, eléison.
R. Christe, eléison.
V. Kyrie, eléison.

V. Christe, audi nos.
R. Christe, exáudi nos.

V. Pater de cælis, Deus.
R. Miserére nobis.

V. Spíritus Sancte, Deus.
R. Miserére nobis.

V. Sancta Trínitas, unus Deus.
R. Miserére nobis.

Holy Mary, pray for us.
Holy Mother of God, pray for us.
Holy Virgin of virgins, pray for us.
St. Michael, pray for us.
St. Gabriel, pray for us.
St. Raphael, pray for us.
All you Holy Angels and Archangels, pray for us.
St. John the Baptist, pray for us.
St. Joseph, spouse of the Blessed Virgin, pray for us.
All you Holy Patriarchs and Prophets, pray for us. Holy Mary, pray for us.
Holy Mother of God, pray for us.
Holy Virgin of virgins, pray for us.
Our Lady of Paris, pray for us.
Our Lady of La Salette, pray for us.
Our Lady of Lourdes, pray for us.
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal, pray for us.
Our Lady of Rocamadour, pray for us.
Our Lady of Pontmain, pray for us.

St. Peter, pray for us.
St. Paul, pray for us.
St. Andrew, pray for us.
St. James, pray for us.
St. John, pray for us.
St. Thomas, pray for us.
St. James, pray for us.
St. Philip, pray for us.
St. Bartholomew, pray for us.
St. Matthew, pray for us.
St. Simon, pray for us.
St. Jude, pray for us.
St. Matthias, pray for us.
St. Barnabas, pray for us.
St. Luke, pray for us.
St. Mark, pray for us.
St. Mary Magdalene, pray for us.
All you holy Apostles and Evangelists, pray for us.
All you holy Disciples of the Lord, pray for us.
All you holy Innocents, pray for us.
All you holy Virgins, pray for us.

St. Abbo of Fleury , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Adelaide of Italy , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Adelelmus of Burgos , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Adelelmus of Flanders , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Adelin of Séez , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Aderald , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Aimo , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Margaret Mary Alacoque , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Albert of Montecorvino , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Alexander (martyr) , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Andrew of Trier , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Anselm of Canterbury , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Anthony the Hermit , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Antoninus of Pamiers , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Artaldus , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Ascelina , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Auspicius of Toul , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Auspicius of Trier , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Aventinus of Tours , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Leonie Aviat , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Aymard of Cluny , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Baldwin of Rieti , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Madeleine Sophie Barat , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
St. Bernard of Thiron , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Siméon-François Berneux , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Berno of Cluny , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Bertrand of Comminges , pray for France and the whole world.
St.Joan Elizabeth Bichier des Ages , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Julie Billiart , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jean-Louis Bonnard , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Pierre Dumoulin-Borie Bourgeoys , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jean de Brébeuf , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Canus Natus , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Clotilde, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Noël Chabanel , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Peter Chanel , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jane Frances de Chantal , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Colette of Corbie , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jean-Charles Cornay , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Antoine Daniel , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Marie-Nicolas-Antoine Daveluy , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Denis, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Dionysius of Vienne , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Domnin, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Pierre-Henri Dorie , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Rose Philippine Duchesne, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Louis Gabriel Taurin Dufresse, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Ebontius , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Élisabeth of the Trinity, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Elzéar of Sabran , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Émilie de Villeneuve , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Émilien of Nantes, pray for France and of the whole world.
St. Estelle , pray for France and the whole world.
St. John Eudes , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Peter Julian Eymard , pray for France and the whole world.

SS. Peter Faber, Felix, Fortunatus, and Achilleus, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Floribert of Liège, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Pierre Fourier, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Andrew Fournet , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Frederick of Liege , pray for France and the whole world.

St. François-Isidore Gagelin , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Charles Garnier , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Gaugericus , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Geneviève, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Gens, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Gérard of Brogne , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Goneri of Brittany , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Goswin , pray for France and the whole world.
St. René Goupil , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Guarinus of Sitten , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Théodore Guérin , pray for France and the whole world.
St Guirec , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Hilary of Poitiers , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Hugh of Noara , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Laurent-Joseph-Marius Imbert , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Isabelle of France , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Joan of Arc, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Joan of France, Duchess of Berry , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Isaac Jogues , pray for France and the whole world.
St. John of the Grating , pray for France and of the whole world.
St. Judoc , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Julian the Hospitaller , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Catherine Labouré , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Benedict Joseph Labre , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jean de Lalande , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Gabriel Lalemant , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Lambert of Vence, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jeanne de Lestonnac, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Leudwinus, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Louis IX, King of France, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Magloire, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Jeanne-Marie de Maille , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Malo, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Joseph Marchand, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Marie of the Incarnation, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Louise de Marillac, pray for France and the whole world.
SS. Louis Martin and Marie-Azélie Guérin, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Maurice of Carnoet Méen, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Louis de Montfort, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Nazarius, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Odo of Cluny, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Ormond, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Paternus of Auch Patiens, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Vincent de Paul, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Paulinus of Trier , pray for France and the whole world.
St Mary Euphrasia Pelletier , pray for France and the whole world.
St. John Gabriel Perboyre , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Peter of Juilly , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Peter of Tarentaise , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William Pinchon , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Prosper of Aquitaine , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Quintian of Rodez , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Raymond of Barbastro , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Raymond of Toulouse , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Richard of Vaucelles , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Richardis, pray for France and of the whole world.
St. Roch , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Émilie de Rodat , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Benildus Romançon , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Elizabeth Rose , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Francis de Sales , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Saturnina , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Augustin Schoeffler , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Serenus the Gardener, pray for France and the whole world.
SS Severinus, Exuperius, and Felician, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Sigo , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Bernadette Soubirous , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Stephen of Obazine , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Theobald of Dorat , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Theodard , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Theophilus of Corte , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Thérèse of Lisieux , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Thérèse Couderc, pray for France and the whole world.
St. Claudine Thévenet , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Joan Antidea Thouret , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Tironensian Order , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Torpes of Pisa , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Marie Thérèse Vauzou , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Venant de Viviers , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Théophane Vénard , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Veranus of Vence , pray for France and the whole world.
Sy. Emily de Vialar , pray for France and the whole world.
St. John Vianney , pray for France and the whole world.
St Vincent of Digne , pray for France and the whole world.

St. Walric, abbot of Leuconay , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William of Æbelholt , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William of Breteuil , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William of Donjeon , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William of Gellone , pray for France and the whole world.
St. William of Pontoise , pray for France and the whole world.
St. Wivina, pray for France and the whole world.

St. Zachary of Vienne, pray for France and the whole world.

Louis XVI, pray for France and the whole world.
Marie-Antoinette, pray for France and the whole world.
Cardinal Bérulle, pray for France and the whole world.
Monsieur Olier, pray for France and the whole world.
Madame Élisabeth, pray for France and the whole world.
Mère Thérèse de Saint-Augustin, pray for France and the whole world.
Mère Mectilde de Bar, pray for France and the whole world.
Mère Yvonne-Aimeé de Jésus, pray for France and the whole world.

All ye holy martyrs, pray for France
All ye holy kings and queens, pray for France and the whole world.
All ye holy bishops, pray for France and the whole world.
All ye holy priests and deacons, pray for France and the whole world.
All ye holy monks and nuns, pray for France and the whole world.
All ye holy virgins, pray for France and the whole world.
All ye holy men and women, pray for France and the whole world.

PRAY FOR FRANCE.

Ye holy men and women, Saints of God,
R. intercede for us.
Be merciful
R. spare us, O Lord.
Be merciful
R. graciously hear us, O Lord.
From all evil,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From all sin,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From Thy wrath,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From sudden and unprovided death,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From the snares of the devil,
R. deliver us, O Lord.

From anger, hatred, and all ill-will,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From the spirit of fornication,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From lightning and tempest,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From the scourge of earthquake,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From plague, famine and war,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
From everlasting death,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
. Through the mystery of Thy holy Incarnation,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy coming,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy nativity,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy Baptism and holy fasting,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy Cross and Passion,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy Death and Burial,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy Holy Resurrection,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through Thy wondrous Ascension,
R. deliver us, O Lord.
Through the coming of the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete,
In the day of judgment,
R. deliver us, O Lord.

SUPPLICATION FOR VARIOUS NEEDS

We sinners,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst spare us,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst pardon us,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst bring us to true repentance,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst govern and preserve Thy Holy Church,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst preserve the Bishop of the Apostolic See, and all orders of the Church in holy religion,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst humble the enemies of Holy Church,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst grant peace and true concord to Christian kings and princes,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst grant peace and unity to all Christian peoples
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst call back to the unity of the Church all who have strayed from her fold, and to guide all unbelievers into the light of the Gospel
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst confirm and preserve us in Thy holy service,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst lift up our minds to heavenly desires,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst render eternal blessing to all our benefactors,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst deliver our souls and the souls of our brethren, relations and benefactors from eternal damnation,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst grant and preserve the fruits of the earth,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst grant eternal rest to all the faithful departed,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
That Thou wouldst graciously hear us,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.

Son of God,
R. we beseech Thee, hear us.
Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. spare us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. graciously hear us, O Lord.
Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. have mercy on us.
Christ,
R. hear us.
Christ,
R. graciously hear us.
Kyrie, eleison.
R. Kyrie, eleison. Kyrie, eleison.
R. Kyrie, eleison.
Christe, eleison.
R. Christe, eleison. Christe, eleison.
R. Christe, eleison.
Kyrie, eleison.
R. Kyrie, eleison. Kyrie, eleison.
R. Kyrie, eleison.

Our Father (in silence until)
And lead us not into temptation,
R. but deliver us from evil.

V. O God, come to my assistance;
R. O Lord, make haste to help me.
V. Let them be confounded and ashamed;
R. those who seek my life.
V. Let them be rebuffed and disgraced,
R. those who wish me evil.
V. Let them be turned away blushing for shame,
R. those who say unto me: Aha! Aha!.
But let all those who seek Thee:
R. rejoice and be glad in Thee.
And may they always say: “Great is the Lord”,
R. all those who delight in Thy salvation.
V. But I am afflicted and poor ,
R. O God, help me.
Thou art my helper and deliverer,
R. O Lord, do not delay.
Amen. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.
V. Save Thy servants.
R. My God, who hope in Thee.
V. Be unto us, O Lord, a tower of strength.
R. In the face of the enemy.

V. Let not the enemy prevail against us.
R. Nor the son of iniquity have power to harm us.
. V. O Lord, deal not with us according to our sins.
R. Nor render unto us according to our sins.

V. Let us pray for our Sovereign Pontiff Holy Father Pope Francis.

R. That The Lord preserve him and give him life, and make him blessed upon the earth, and deliver him not up to the will of his enemies.
V. Let us pray for our benefactors.
R. Deign to grant, O Lord, for the sake of Thy Name, eternal life to all those who do good to us.
V. Let us pray for the faithful departed.
R. Eternal rest grant unto them, O Lord: and let perpetual light shine upon them.

R. Amen. V. May they rest in peace.
R. Amen.
V. For our absent brethren.
R. Save Thy servants who hope in Thee, O my God.
V. Send them help, O Lord, from Thy holy place.
R. And from Sion protect them.

V. O Lord, hear my prayer.
R. And let my cry come unto Thee.
V. The Lord be with you.
R. And with thy spirit.

Collects: Let us pray:

O God, Whose property is always to have mercy and to spare, receive our petition; that we and all Thy servants who are bound by the chain of sin may, by the compassion of Thy goodness mercifully be absolved.

Graciously hear, we beseech Thee, O Lord, the prayers of Thy supplicants and pardon the sins of those who confess to Thee: that in Thy bounty Thou mayest grant us both pardon and peace.
In Thy clemency, O Lord, show unto us Thine ineffabile mercy; that Thou mayest both free us from sins and deliver us from the punishments which we deserve for them.

O God, who by sin art offended, and by penance appeased, mercifully regard the prayers of Thy people making supplication to Thee; and turn away the scourges of Thy wrath which we deserve for our sins.

Almighty and everlasting God, have mercy upon Thy servant, N, our Sovereign Pontiff: and direct him according to Thy clemency into the way of everlasting salvation: that, by Thy grace, he may desire those things which are pleasing to Thee, and accomplish them with all his strength.

O God, from Whom are holy desires, right counsels, and just works: grant to Thy servants the peace which the world cannot give; that our hearts may be devoted to the keeping of Thy commandments, and that, being removed from the fear of our enemies, our times may be peaceful through Thy protection.

Inflame, O Lord, with the fire of the Holy Spirit, our hearts and our desires; that we may serve Thee with a chaste body and please Thee with a clean heart.

O God, the Creator and redeemer of all the faithful, grant to the souls of Thy departed servants the remission of all their sins; that through pious supplications they may obtain the pardon they have always desired.

Direct, we beseech Thee, O Lord, our actions by Thy holy inspirations and carry them on by Thy gracious assistance; that every prayer and work of ours may always begin with Thee and through Thee be happily ended.

Almighty and everlasting God, Who hast dominion over the living and the dead, and art merciful to all whom Thou foreknowest shall be Thine by faith and good works: we humbly beseech Thee; that they for whom we intend to pour forth our prayers, whether this present world still detains them in the flesh, or the world to come has already received them out of their bodies, may, through the intercession of all Thy Saints, and in Thy compassionate goodness, obtain the pardon of all their sins. Through Christ our Lord.

The Lord be with you.
R. And with Thy spirit.

R. Amen. V. May the almighty and most merciful Lord graciously hear us.
R. Amen.

R. Amen. V. And may the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace.
R. Amen.

In nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti.

Amen.

Prayer of Pius XII for France (1937)


Mère céleste, Notre-Dame, vous qui avez donné à cette nation tant de gages insignes de votre prédilection, implorez pour elle votre divin Fils ; ramenez-la au berceau spirituel de son antique grandeur. Aidez-la à recouvrer, sous la lumineuse et douce étoile de la Foi et de la vie chrétienne, sa félicité passée. Regina pacis ! Oh ! Oui ! Soyez vraiment au milieu de ce peuple qui est vôtre la Reine de la paix, écrasez de votre pied virginal le démon de la haine et de la discorde. Faites comprendre au monde, où tant d’âmes droites s’évertuent à édifier le temple de la paix, le secret qui seul assurera le succès de leurs efforts : établir au centre de ce temple le trône royal de votre divin Fils et rendre hommage à sa loi sainte, en laquelle la justice et l’amour s’unissent en un chaste baiser. Et que par Vous la France, fidèle à sa vocation, soutenue dans son action par la puissance de la prière, par la concorde dans la charité, par une ferme et indéfectible vigilance, exalte dans le monde le triomphe et le Règne du Christ, Prince de la Paix, Roi des rois et Seigneur des seigneurs.

Amen.

May the prayers of Our Lady see this house rebuilt swiftly and mightily again! (Source)

Fénelon on Perseverance in Prayer

In Lent, I often return to the words of the great Bishop of Cambrai, François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon. He is a perennially refreshing source of spiritual wisdom and guidance. Since we are finally in Passiontide, I thought this excerpt from Fénelon’s sermon on prayer, “The Saints Converse with God,” would be greatly edifying for all those of my readers keeping up with the Lenten Spirituality Series.

A portrait of Fénelon in excellent blue-purple episcopal garb (Source)

We must pray with perseverance. The perfect heart is never weary of seeking God. Ought we to complain if God sometimes leaves us to obscurity, and doubt, and temptation? Trials purify humble souls, and they serve to expiate the faults of the unfaithful. They confound those who, even in their prayers, have flattered their cowardice and pride. If an innocent soul, devoted to God, suffer from any secret disturbance, it should be humble, adore the designs of God, and redouble its prayers and its fervor. How often do we hear those who every day have to reproach themselves with unfaithfulness toward God complain that He refuses to answer their prayers! Ought they not to acknowledge that it is their sins which have formed a thick cloud between Heaven and them, and that God has justly hidden Himself from them? How often has He recalled us from our wanderings! How often, ungrateful as we are, have we been deaf to His voice and insensible to His goodness! He would make us feel that we are blind and miserable when we forsake Him. He would teach us, by privation, the value of the blessings that we have slighted. And shall we not bear our punishment with patience? Who can boast of having done all that he ought to have done; of having repaired all his past errors; of having purified his heart, so that he may claim as a right that God should listen to his prayer? Most truly, all our pride, great as it is, would not be sufficient to inspire such presumption! If then, the Almighty do not grant our petitions, let us adore His justice, let us be silent, let us humble ourselves, and let us pray without ceasing. This humble perseverance will obtain from Him what we should never obtain by our own merit. It will make us pass happily from darkness to light; for know, says St. Augustine, that God is near to us even when He appears far from us.

How to Celebrate Lent like a French Princess

Mesdames Victoire, Adélaide, and Louise, three of the pious daughters of Louis XV, known collectively as “Mesdames de France” or “Mesdames Tantes” after the accession of Louis XVI. Only Adélaide married; Louise later became a Carmelite prioress at Saint-Denis before having the extremely good fortune to die in 1787. Source

The inimitable John McManners, late Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History at the University of Oxford, provides a window into the world of late Ancien Régime piety (or, rather, its dearth) in his monumental Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France. He writes:

“To what extent was the fast of Lent observed? It was commonly said that the austerities of the penitential season were endured only by the poor. According to the Lenten pastoral letter of the archbishop of Sens in 1779, the rich often obtained medical certificates allowing them to eat what they liked. This was the fashionable thing to do. ‘Look at our bourgeois citizen and his wife in their (draper’s) shop, observing Lent strictly,’ said teh Jesuit Père Croisset in his Parallel des moeurs de ce siècle et la morale de Jesus-Christ (1727): ‘their fortune changes…and scarcely has the tape measure dropped from their hands than you see them putting on airs like people of quality and asking for dispensations from fasting.’ This class distinction was observed even in the kitchens of the Bastille: on the first Friday of his imprisonment, Marmontel gloomily at the meatless meal provided, not knowing that it had been meant for his servant. In any case, there were plenty of succulent dishes within the rules, for those who could afford them.

Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in the garb of a penitent (Source)

“Lent was the season to have tubs of fresh butter sent in from the countryside, and to ensure plentiful supplies of fish and water birds (the tes of an allowable fowl was: did the gravy remain uncongealed after fifteen minutes? – so a bishop gravely advised Mme Victoire, Louis XV’s pious but comfortable daughter). The peasant, whose existence is a perpetual Lent anyway, said Voltaire, awaits episcopal permission to eat his farmyard eggs, while the bishop himself looks forward to expensive dishes of soles. Certainly, things were well organized at Versailles. ‘A ray of grace has descended on us,’ wrote the duc de la Vallière in April 1756; ‘we fasted for three days a week during the whole of Lent, but on condition that we suffered no deprivations.’ Preachers were well aware that those with money and leisure could organize an attractive Lent for themselves: an occasional walk in a procession (a penitent’s garb was no disadvantage to a good-looking woman), extra time in bed to recuperate from privations, and food more delicately cooked and served than usual. ‘For some – God grant that there are none in my congregation today,’ thundered the Oratorian Surian, ‘Lent is a more agreeable time, in a sophisticated way, than the other seasons of the year.'”

(Vol. I, pg. 86-87).

Ah, the trials of the penitential season!

St. Francis de Sales Doesn’t Dance

Here is an extremely amusing (and, in its own way, edifying) little chapter from Introduction to the Devout Life. I’ve only just encountered it by chance. It’s passages like this that rather make one understand why Evelyn Underhill summed up his teaching in the one line, “Yes, indeed, my dear Duchess, as Your Grace so truly observes, God is love.”

One can almost hear the Gentleman Saint sipping his tea at the end of each numbered item in the list below.

CHAPTER XXXIII. Of Balls, and other Lawful but Dangerous Amusements.

DANCES and balls are things in themselves indifferent, but the circumstances ordinarily surrounding them have so generally an evil tendency, that they become full of temptation and danger. The time of night at which they take place is in itself conducive to harm, both as the season when people’s nerves are most excited and open to evil impressions; and because, after being up the greater part of the night, they spend the mornings afterwards in sleep, and lose the best part of the day for God’s Service. It is a senseless thing to turn day into night, light into darkness, and to exchange good works for mere trifling follies. Moreover, those who frequent balls almost inevitably foster their Vanity, and vanity is very conducive to unholy desires and dangerous attachments.

I am inclined to say about balls what doctors say of certain articles of food, such as mushrooms and the like—the best are not good for much; but if eat them you must, at least mind that they are properly cooked. So, if circumstances over which you have no control take you into such places, be watchful how you prepare to enter them. Let the dish be seasoned with moderation, dignity and good intentions. The doctors say (still referring to the mushrooms), eat sparingly of them, and that but seldom, for, however well dressed, an excess is harmful.

So dance but little, and that rarely, my daughter, lest you run the risk of growing over fond of the amusement.

Pliny says that mushrooms, from their porous, spongy nature, easily imbibe meretricious matter, so that if they are near a serpent, they are infected by its poison. So balls and similar gatherings are wont to attract all that is bad and vicious; all the quarrels, envyings, slanders, and indiscreet tendencies of a place will be found collected in the ballroom. While people’s bodily pores are opened by the exercise of dancing, the heart’s pores will be also opened by excitement, and if any serpent be at hand to whisper foolish words of levity or impurity, to insinuate unworthy thoughts and desires, the ears which listen are more than prepared to receive the contagion.

Believe me, my daughter, these frivolous amusements are for the most part dangerous; they dissipate the spirit of devotion, enervate the mind, check true charity, and arouse a multitude of evil inclinations in the soul, and therefore I would have you very reticent in their use.

To return to the medical simile;—it is said that after eating mushrooms you should drink some good wine. So after frequenting balls you should frame pious thoughts which may counteract the dangerous impressions made by such empty pleasures on your heart.

Bethink you, then—

1. That while you were dancing, souls were groaning in hell by reason of sins committed when similarly occupied, or in consequence thereof.

2. Remember how, at the selfsame time, many religious and other devout persons were kneeling before God, praying or praising Him. Was not their time better spent than yours?

3. Again, while you were dancing, many a soul has passed away amid sharp sufferings; thousands and tens of thousands were lying all the while on beds of anguish, some perhaps untended, unconsoled, in fevers, and all manner of painful diseases. Will you not rouse yourself to a sense of pity for them? At all events, remember that a day will come when you in your turn will lie on your bed of sickness, while others dance and make merry.

4. Bethink you that our Dear Lord, Our Lady, all the Angels and Saints, saw all that was passing. Did they not look on with sorrowful pity, while your heart, capable of better things, was engrossed with such mere follies?

5. And while you were dancing time passed by, and death drew nearer. Trifle as you may, the awful dance of death must come, the real pastime of men, since therein they must, whether they will or no, pass from time to an eternity of good or evil. If you think of the matter quietly, and as in God’s Sight, He will suggest many a like thought, which will steady and strengthen your heart.

St. Francis de Sales, giving you the side-eye.

The Funerary Rites of James II

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Frontispiece of the Sacra Exequialia. Note the skeletons at the base of the candelabra and baldachin columns. (Source)

A forgotten Latin text of 1702, the Sacra Exequialia in Funere Jacobi II, provides some wonderful views of early modern Catholic funerary rites. Or at least, as those rites were employed for dead monarchs. The central text is Cardinal Barberini’s funeral oration for the king at Rome. Fun fact: if you Google “Exequialia,” it’s the first and one of the only results. While it may not be a hapax legomenon, it’s the sort of rare word that makes epeolaters and logophiles drool.

At any rate, I’m not writing this post because of Barberini’s text. The book’s more delicious feature is its several illustrations, including the wild Baroque decoration of the church of San Lorenzo in Lucina as well as several emblems.

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The decorations of San Lorenzo in Lucina for the occasion. (Source)

Of course, James II died in Paris and buried in the English Benedictine church there. It is a testament to the respect he was held in by the Papal court that a Cardinal of such standing as Carlo Barberini, Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica, should preach an oration for him in Rome.

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One of the marvellous emblems in the text. Note the Ouroboros. (Source)

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An image of London. There are similar views of Paris and Rome. All were at hung at the high altar behind the catafalque and its baldachin. (Source)

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Another moral emblem. I’m particularly fond of this one as the harp recalls not only the exile in Babylon (and thus the Jacobite exile) but also the valiant Irish defense of James’s claim to the throne in 1689. These also would have adorned the walls of the church alongside the King’s arms. (Source)

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A closer view of the skeletal flambeaux. One can never have too many at a funeral. (Source)

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Jacobite emblem accompanying the text of the Oration. (Source)

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A closer view of the frontispiece. Note the Pope flying over the catafalque. (Source)

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Here you can see the spooky scary skeletons all around the room. (Source)

 

Advice from a French Nun

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A portrait of Mother Mectilde de Bar adoring the Blessed Sacrament. (Source)

Sometimes readers ask me about more information on Mother Mectilde de Bar (1614-1698), the saintly foundress of the Benedictine Nuns of Perpetual Adoration of the Most Blessed Sacrament of the Altar. I would of course direct those who read French or Italian to any of the several biographical studies about Mother Mectilde that have come out in those languages. However, I would perhaps more eagerly urge my readers to a series of recent posts at Vultus Christi presenting what is, I believe, the first English translations of some of Mother Mectilde’s spiritual letters. Here they are with the titles the translator has given them at VC.

I. “So that I might begin to live in simplicity, like a child.”

II. “On the Meaning of Desolation and Sufferings.”

III. “The state in which you find yourself is of God.”

IV. “The divine labourer who works in you.”

V. “Yet ever thou art at my side.”

VI. “Nothingness doesn’t even attach itself to nothingness.”

VII. “Some sayings of Mother Mectilde.”

VIII. “He sets fire everywhere.”

IX. “All our discontent comes from self-will.”

And on top of all that, there’s a letter from the lay mystic Jean de Bernières to Mother Mectilde. Bernières is a good example of someone who, though posthumously condemned as a “Quietist,” is now being recovered as a source of valuable mystical insight. We have seen the same happen to Benet Canfield before, and it may yet occur to someone like Pietro Matteo Petrucci. More work needs to be done in this area. At any rate, translation of these early modern mystical works is badly needed.

Both as a practicing Catholic and as an historian of early modern Catholicism, I am encouraged that these works are being put into English for the first time. The English-speaking world is now getting a much better sense of the importance of this unique tradition within the Benedictine family. More translations, we are told, are coming. I eagerly await their publication.

 

On Gallicanism and Ultramontanism

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Scene from the Council of Constance, the Sixteenth Ecumenical Council (Source)

Over at Notre Dame’s Church Life Journal, there are two important pieces worth your time. The first, Dr. Taylor Patrick O’Neill’s “A Defense of Ultramontanism Contra Gallicanism,” is a theological analysis of the recent use of “ultramontanism” as a pejorative in Catholic discourse. Dr. O’Neill, a Neo-Thomist theologian, suggests that Ultramontanism is “the golden mean” by which to preserve a healthy and authentically Catholic respect for the Papacy. He writes:

But how does the historical usage of the term “ultramontane” hold any significance for us today? Given that the term arose as an insult against those who challenged the claims of Gallicanism, and given that those who championed papal primacy over local kings and bishops were legitimized at Vatican I, the term ought not to be associated with heterodoxy but rather orthodoxy.

To equate ultramontanism and orthodoxy is an extraordinary claim. While Dr. O’Neill recognizes that there are some excessively papalist versions of ultramontanism – a phenomenon he would prefer to call “super-ultramontanism” or “ultra-ultramontanism” – he fails to escape the very alienation from the term’s “historical significance” that he attempts to address.

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Umberto Benigni (1862-1934), Ultramontane church historian. (Source)

Take, for instance, his citation of Umberto Benigni’s article on “Ultramontanism” in the 1912 Catholic Encyclopedia. The passage O’Neill cites reads:

For Catholics it would be superfluous to ask whether Ultramontanism and Catholicism are the same thing: assuredly, those who combat Ultramontanism are in fact combating Catholicism, even when they disclaim the desire to oppose it.

If O’Neill had borrowed his words merely for a theological point, we might pass over the citation. But his is an historical judgment, not primarily a theological one. O’Neill doesn’t mention that Benigni is an out-dated, partisan, and sectarian Church historian whose article manifests those faults. It is hard to imagine any contemporary historian making much use of Benigni, whose other works include a volume entitled Ritual Murder Among the Jews (Belgrade, 1926-29).

Ultramontanism arose as a coherent and self-identified ecclesiological tendency under the pressures of post-Napoleonic Europe. While Papalism has always existed in the Church, the emergence of a self-consciously “Ultramontane” party before and after Vatican I was bound up with the Catholic response to modernity. And in some places – especially France – it was synonymous with less savory elements such as antisemitism. This fact alone hardly invalidates O’Neill’s theological point. But if we want to look at the term’s “historical significance,” I see little way to escape the actual history. “Historical significance” might just as well mean “connotations” as any sort of precise theological definition. O’Neill delimits ultramontanism by confining it to the realm of ideas as a functionally timeless truth. Yet he mires Gallicanism in the muck of human history. Ultramontanism is just the consistent teaching of the Church; Gallicanism, by contrast, is the small and fractious complaint of tendentious and self-interested minorities such as French kings and the Old Catholic schismatics. This discursive move may not be disingenuous, but it does set up a problematic historical imbalance. Ultramontanism is just as historically-conditioned as Gallicanism. Both involve something rather more than mere ideas – they enlisted social, political, and ecclesiastical movements, not always with very good results. And unfortunately, some of O’Neill’s history is simply incorrect.

At the same publication, the historian Dr. Shaun Blanchard’s “A Quasi-Defense of Gallicanism” provides some helpful correctives. It is a nuanced and well-argued piece (and well-sourced, too – Dr. Blanchard has seen fit to provide his readers with eight end-notes referring to reputable historical literature).

Against O’Neill’s suggestion that Gallicanism only arose after the Reformation, Blanchard correctly notes that the Medieval Conciliarist tradition most eloquently expressed by Jean Gerson (1368-1429) and the fathers of the Council of Constance (1414-18) provide ample groundwork for what would later be called “Gallicanism.” And Dr. Blanchard is right to point out that “Gallicanism” was never just one phenomenon, but a disparate tendency that crystallized into different forms of resistance to Papal centralization – not all of which were at play in Vatican I. Moreover, Blanchard correctly argues that, against Benigni and O’Neill’s interpretation, the Gallican minority at Vatican I preserved certain ecclesiological truths later vindicated by Vatican II. One could go on. Blanchard provides a great deal more historical background than O’Neill in support of his point.

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Cardinal Newman in his winter cappa. The man was no Ultramontanist. (Source)

Blanchard’s defense of Gallican thinkers such as Gerson, Bossuet, and Fleury is admirable. One could add to their names that of Cardinal Newman, whose soft-conciliarist ecclesiology earned the ire of ultramontanists like Cardinal Manning and W.G. Ward and Monsignor George Talbot, who famously wrote to Manning,

What is the province of the laity? To hunt, to shoot, to entertain? These matters they understand, but to meddle with ecclesiastical matters they have no right at all, and this affair of Newman is a matter purely ecclesiastical…Dr. Newman is the most dangerous man in England, and you will see that he will make use of the laity against your Grace.

None of this broader historical context appears in O’Neill’s piece. Perhaps it’s a little unfair to demand it, insofar as O’Neill is more interested in our contemporary debates than in the genealogy of the terms at play. But if we are to properly recognize “the historical significance” of ultramontanism, then we can’t really dodge the issue. If O’Neill is right to suggest that “the term ought not to be associated with heterodoxy but rather orthodoxy,” then men like Newman are beyond the pale of orthodoxy. And that seems like rather an impoverished vision of the Catholic intellectual life. I will conclude with Dr. Blanchard’s own measured words on the matter.

My point in this qualified defense of Gallicanism is not that we should “return” to Gallicanism, if such a thing were even possible. Neither must we equate ultramontanism with Catholic orthodoxy, simply because ultramontanes triumphed at Vatican I. Catholic orthodoxy is too big to be equated with either. The Catholic faith is big enough and dynamic enough to include what is good and true in ultramontanism and in Gallicanism, and likewise to reject what is harmful, false, or exaggerated in both.

Read them both.

Saint-Denis, Liturgy, and a Royal Nun

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St. Denys, pray for us! (Source)

Canticum Salomonis has a great little piece on the Sequence of St. Denys. Liturgical nerds will find it of particular interest. It mainly attracts my own attention due to a fascinating tidbit:

Beginning with the new Parisian missal promulgated by the Lord Archbishop François de Harlay in 1684, the neo-Gallican liturgical books that festered in France during the Enlightenment Age altered this sequence to expunge any connection between St Dionysius the Areopagite and St Dionysius of Paris. The Abbey of St-Denys, however, remained firm in defending the Greek origins of its patron, and sung the original text until the Revolution.

I’m unaware of any serious scholarship so far that has plunged into the liturgical dynamics of the Revolution – though certainly, the Gallicans, Jansenists, and Cisalpines all had ideas about liturgical reform. What an intriguing project a deeper study might be. Perhaps John McManners has looked at it all already, and I simply haven’t gotten to that part of his famous and positively rococo two-volume study, Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France.

Madame Louise, Prioress of Saint-Denis. (Source)

Saint-Denis was an important place in the 1780’s. Madame Louise, daughter of Louis XV and aunt of Louis XVI, entered the Carmel of Saint-Denis while her father was still alive. As Sister Thérèse de Saint-Augustin, she eventually rose to the rank of Prioress. Saint-Denis thus became a center of the Parti Dévot, the most conservative (some would say reactionary) part of the French court and church. It’s hardly surprising that the great Abbey there would likewise remain a bastion of liturgy that might otherwise be regarded as “superstitious” or “backwards” by the more radical portions of the French church.